Nature

Amateka: Intambara ya mbere y'isi icyo irusha izindi zose zabayeho kuva isi yaremwa

by Ken-saga pascal 10 January. 2020 @ibyiwacu 242 Views

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Intambara ya mbere y’isi yose irusha izindi zose zabayeho kuva isi yaremwa

Mu kinyejana gishize, abasore babarirwa muri za miriyoni bavuye iwabo aho bari bamerewe neza, bajya ku rugamba. Bagiye bafite ishyaka ryo kurwanirira ibihugu byabo. Mu mwaka wa 1914, hari umusirikare w’Umunyamerika wavuze ati “mfite ibyishimo byinshi, kandi iyo ntekereje ukuntu mu minsi iri imbere ibintu bizaba ari byiza cyane, numva bindenze.”

Icyakora bidatinze, ibyari ibyishimo byaje kuvamo amarira. Nta n’umwe wari warigeze atekereza ko abo basirikare batagira ingano, bari kuzamara imyaka runaka barwanira mu Bubiligi no mu Bufaransa. Iyo ntambara yiswe “Intambara iruta izindi.” Ariko muri iki gihe yitwa intambara ya mbere y’isi yose.

Kimwe mu bintu intambara ya mbere y’isi yose irusha izindi, ni umubare munini w’abo yahitanye cyangwa abayikomerekeyemo. Hari abavuga ko yahitanye abantu bagera kuri miriyoni 10, ikamugaza abagera kuri miriyoni 20. Ariko nanone, ibyo byose byatewe n’uburangare. Abakuru b’ibihugu by’i Burayi bananiwe guhagarika ubwumvikane buke bwari hagati y’ibihugu byabo kugira ngo budafata indi ntera bugateza amakimbirane ku isi hose. Ariko ikintu gikomeye kurushaho, ni uko iyo ntambara yasigiye abatuye isi ibikomere, kuko yahinduye isi ku buryo ingaruka zayo zikitugeraho na n’ubu.

AMAKOSA YATUMYE ABANTU BATAKARIZWA ICYIZERE

Intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yatewe no kubara nabi. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko abayobozi b’u Burayi babaye “nk’impumyi zagendaga muri icyo gihe cy’amahoro cyo mu mpeshyi yo mu wa 1914, maze zigasitara kuri kabutindi zitabizi.”—The Fall of the Dynasties—The Collapse of the Old Order 1905-1922.

Mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bike, iyicwa ry’igikomangoma cyo muri Otirishiya ryatumye ibihugu by’u Burayi bikomeye byose byinjira mu ntambara bitifuzaga. Nyuma y’iminsi mike iyo ntambara itangiye, umutegetsi w’u Budage twagereranya na Minisitiri w’Intebe wariho icyo gihe, baramubajije bati “ibi byose byatangiye bite?” Yabashubije ababaye agira ati “yewe, iyo nibura hagira umenya uko byari kuzagenda!”

Abayobozi bafashe imyanzuro iteje akaga yatumye iyo ntambara irota, ntibari bazi ko yari kuzateza ingaruka nk’izo yateje. Ariko mu gihe gito abasirikare bari mu myobo bahuye n’uruva gusenya. Baje gutahura ko burya abanyapolitiki babatengushye, abayobozi b’amadini bakababeshya naho abakuru b’ingabo bakabagambanira. Mu buhe buryo?

Abanyapolitiki baratengushye, abayobozi b’amadini barababeshya naho abakuru b’ingabo barabagambanira

Abanyapolitiki babasezeranyije ko iyo ntambara yari kubugururira inzira igana mu isi nshya kandi nziza kurushaho. Wa mutegetsi wo mu Budage wavuzwe haruguru, yagize ati “turimo turarwanirira imbuto z’amahoro, duharanira umurage wacu ukomeye wo mu gihe cyahise n’uwo mu gihe kizaza.” Woodrow Wilson wari perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yagize uruhare mu guhimba intero ihumuriza yaje kogera hirya no hino ivuga ko iyo ntambara yari “kuzubaka isi ibereye demokarasi.” Naho mu Bwongereza, abaturage bibwiraga ko iyo ari yo “ntambara yari kuzarangiza intambara zose.” Ariko bose baribeshyaga.

Abayobozi b’amadini bashyigikiye intambara byimazeyo. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti “abarindaga ijambo ry’Imana bayoboye abaririmbyi baririmbaga indirimbo zishishikariza abantu kurwana. Intambara bose bishoyemo yatumye bose bangana urunuka” (The Columbia History of the World). Aho kugira ngo abo bayobozi b’amadini barandure urwango, bararukongeje. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti “uretse kuba abayobozi b’amadini barananiwe gushyira imbere ukwizera kwa gikristo ahubwo bagashyira imbere ibihugu byabo, nta n’ubushake bwo kubikora bari bafite. Abenshi muri bo banze kwigora, bumvikanisha ko kuba Umukristo bijyana no gukunda igihugu. Abasirikare bo mu madini yose yiyita aya gikristo batewe inkunga yo kwicana mu izina ry’Umukiza wabo.”—A History of Christianity.

Abasirikare bakuru basezeranyije abandi basirikare ko bari bizeye intsinzi mu gihe gito kandi ko urugamba rutari rugoye, ariko si ko byagenze. Nyuma y’igihe gito impande zari zihanganye ku rugamba zararwanye rubura gica. Nyuma yaho abasirikare babarirwa muri za miriyoni bahuye n’icyo umuhanga mu by’amateka yise “ibihe bikomeye kurusha ibindi kandi birangwa n’ubugome abantu bahuye na byo bikabatera ibikomere ku mubiri no mu bwenge.” Nubwo abasirikare bapfaga ari benshi, abakuru babo bakomeje kubahatira kwiroha ku birindiro bizitiwe na senyenge no mu rufaya rw’amasasu. Ntibitangaje rero kuba abasirikare bo hirya no hino ku si barageze aho bakabigomekaho.

Ni izihe ngaruka intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yagize ku bantu muri rusange? Hari igitabo cyavuze iby’umusirikare wavuye ku rugerero, wagize ati “iyo ntambara . . . yangije imitekerereze n’imyitwarire y’abantu b’icyo gihe.” Kandi koko, yatumye ubwami butari buke buhirima burundu. Ni yo yabimburiye ikinyejana cyamenetsemo amaraso menshi kurusha ibindi byose mu mateka y’abantu. Kuva icyo gihe, abantu babona ko impinduramatwara n’imyigaragambyo ari ibintu bisanzwe
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